YANG Yanqiu, CHE Yue, FANG Mingxia, et al. Reynosin protects neuronal cells from microglial neuroinflammation by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediated by NADPH oxidase [J].Chin J Nat Med, 2024, 22(6): 486-500. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(24)60652-7
Citation: YANG Yanqiu, CHE Yue, FANG Mingxia, et al. Reynosin protects neuronal cells from microglial neuroinflammation by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediated by NADPH oxidase [J].Chin J Nat Med, 2024, 22(6): 486-500. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(24)60652-7

Reynosin protects neuronal cells from microglial neuroinflammation by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediated by NADPH oxidase

  • Neuroinflammation, mediated by the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, is a significant contributor to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Reynosin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone (SL), exhibits a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, suggesting its potential therapeutic value. However, the effects and mechanism of reynosin on neuroinflammation remain elusive. The current study explores the effects and mechanisms of reynosin on neuroinflammation using mice and BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our findings reveal that reynosin effectively reduces microglial inflammation in vitro, as demonstrated by decreased CD11b expression and lowered interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) mRNA and protein levels. Correspondingly, in vivo, results showed a reduction in the number of Iba-1 positive cells and alleviation of morphological alterations, alongside decreased expressions of IL-1β and IL-18. Further analysis indicates that reynosin inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation, evidenced by reduced transcription of NLRP3 and caspase-1, diminished NLRP3 protein expression, inhibited apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization, and decreased caspase-1 self-cleavage. Additionally, reynosin curtailed the activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, demonstrated by reduced NADP+ and NADPH levels, downregulation of gp91phox mRNA, protein expression, suppression of p47phox expression and translocation to the membrane. Moreover, reynosin exhibited a neuroprotective effect against microglial inflammation in vivo and in vitro. These collective findings underscore reynosin’s capacity to mitigate microglial inflammation by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome, thus highlighting its potential as a therapeutic agent for managing neuroinflammation.
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