2015 Vol. 13, No. 3

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Editorial:Cutting-Edge Publications Impacting Sciences:Beyond Natural Medicines
2015, 13(3): 161-162.
This year, the journal Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (CJNM) celebrates its consecutive, successful 12 years of excellent publication. The journal was founded in May 2003, as a product of China Pharmaceutical University, an internationally recognized top high education institution in China, and Chinese Pharmaceutical Association, an leading professional society in biomedical and pharmaceutical research and development. Since its inception, CJNM has devoted to outstanding and effective communications among pharmaceutical and medicinal plant scientists to promote botanical, chemical, and biological sciences related to natural medicines, as an effort of promoting global public health and patient care. In the past 12 years, thanks to the excellent contributions (original research articles or timely reviews) of several thousands of our authors, timely and high-quality reviews of thousands of peer reviewers, and outstanding and tireless efforts of our editors, editorial board members, and editorial staff, our journal has been emerging as a leading journal in natural medicines and drug discovery and development.
Salvia miltiorrhiza:Traditional medicinal uses, chemistry, and pharmacology
SU Chun-Yan, MING Qian-Liang, RAHMAN Khalid, HAN Ting, QIN Lu-Ping
2015, 13(3): 163-182.
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) is a very popular medicinal plant that has been extensively applied for many years to treat various diseases, especially coronary heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases, either alone or in combination with other Chinese plant-based medicines. Although a large number of studies on SM have been performed, they are scattered across a variety of publications. The present review is an up-to-date summary of the published scientific information about the traditional uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, side effects, and drug interactions with SM, in order to lay the foundation for further investigations and better utilization of SM. SM contains diverse chemical components including diterpenoid quinones, hydrophilic phenolic acids, and essential oils. Many pharmacological studies have been done on SM during the last 30 years, focusing on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects, and the antioxidative, neuroprotective, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. The research results strongly support the notion that SM has beneficial therapeutic properties and has a potential of being an effective adaptogenic remedy.
Flavonoid-rich fraction of the Monodora tenuifolia seed extract attenuates behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in forced-swim stressed rats
EKEANYANWU Raphael Chukwuma, NJOKU Obioma Uzoma
2015, 13(3): 183-191.
The antidepressant effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract were examined by assessing the extent of attenuation of behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in the rats that were stressed by forced swim test. Compared with the model control group, the altered behavioural parameters were attenuated significantly (P0.05) in the group treated with the flavonoid-rich fraction (100 and 200 mgkg-1), comparable to the group treated with the standard drug, fluoxetine (10 mgkg-1). The flavonoid-rich fraction and fluoxetine improved significantly (P0.05) the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione, protein, and nitrite in the brain of the stressed rats. These results suggested that the flavonoid-rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract exerted the antidepressant-like effects which could be useful in the management of stress induced disease.
Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of Thais luteostoma extracts and underlying mechanisms
LIU Xin, TANG Yu-Ping, LIU Rui, JIN Yi, GUO Jian-Ming, ZHAO Jin-Long, DING Shao-Xiong, LIN Xiang-Zhi, LIN Ru-Rong, DUAN Jin-Ao
2015, 13(3): 192-198.
Thais luteostoma has been utilized as a crude drug whose shell and soft tissue have been widely used for the treatment of heat syndrome in China for thousands of years. The present study was designed to investigate the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of T. luteostoma. T. luteostoma was divided into shell (TLSH) and soft tissue (TLST) samples in the present study. The rat model of yeast-induced fever was used to investigate their antipyretic effects; and the rat model of hind paw edema induced by carrageenan was utilized to study their anti-inflammatory activities, and at the same time, the concentration variations of the central neurotransmitter[prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)], inflammatory mediators[tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and ion (Na+ and Ca2+) were also tested. The results showed that TLSH and TLST extracts significantly inhibited yeast-induced pyrexia in rats (P0.05), and exhibited more lasting effects as compared to aspirin, and TLSH had the better antipyretic activity than TLST, and that TLSH and TLST could significantly prevent against carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (P0.05); and markedly reduced levels of PGE2, cAMP, TNF, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and Na+/Ca2+. In fever model, TLST could significantly reduce the levels of PGE2 (P0.01) in rats' homogenate and TNF (P0.05), IL-1 (P0.01) in the plasma than TLSH, whereas TLSH could reduce the content of IL-2 (P0.01) and IL-6 (P0.01) in plasma and increase the content of Ca2+ (P0.01) in plasma and homogenate more significantly than TLST. In conclusion, T. luteostoma extract has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities, which may be mediated through the suppression of production of PGE2, cAMP, Na+/Ca2+, TNF, IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6.
Characterization of pumpkin polysaccharides and protective effects on streptozotocin-damaged islet cells
ZHU Hong-Yan, CHEN Guang-Tong, MENG Guo-Liang, XU Ji-Liang
2015, 13(3): 199-207.
The polysaccharides from pumpkin fruit (PP) were obtained and purified by hot-water extraction, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of PP were determined by gel filtration chromatography, gas chromatography, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the molecular weight of PP was about 23 kDa and PP was composed of D-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose with a molar ratio of 1:7.79:70.32:7.05. FTIR and NMR spectra indicated that PP was the polysaccharide containing pyranose ring. Additionally, PP protected islets cells from streptozotocin (STZ) injury in vitro via increasing the levels of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reducing the production of NO. The experiment of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction further proved that PP inhibited apoptosis via modulating the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 in STZ-damaged islet cells. In conclusion, PP could be explored as a novel agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Determination of α-glucosidase inhibitors from Scutellaria baicalensis using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with centrifugal ultrafiltration
YANG Jun-Ran, LUO Jian-Guang, KONG Ling-Yi
2015, 13(3): 208-214.
The present study aimed at identifying potential lead compounds for diabetes mellitus drug discovery. We developed a novel method involving centrifugal ultrafiltration separation subsequent liquid chromatography with quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) determination to screen -glucosidase inhibitors in complex Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG) extract. By adding a second filter to the screening process, the level of non-specific binding of Compounds 1, 3, 10 and 11 was significantly decreased, and the level of non-specific binding of Compounds 5 and 15 also was reduced. As a result, five flavonoids identified as baicalein, baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, and oroxylin A, were rapidly found to interact with -glucosidase and possess potent anti--glucosidase activity in vitro. Specific binding of ligands to -glucosidase was demonstrated though the proposed method and the ligands could be ranked in order of affinity for -glucosidase, which were corresponded to the order of inhibitory activity in vitro. In conclusion, our results indicated that the developed method is a rapid and effective screening method for rat intestinal -glucosidase inhibitors from complex herbal medicines such as SBG.
UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis of iridoid glycosides an metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of Paederia scandens extracts
WANG Dong-Mei, XU Yi-Fei, CHEN Zhu, HUANG Lin-Fang, CHEN Shi-Lin
2015, 13(3): 215-221.
A rapid and validated UPLC-MS method was developed for investigating the absorbed components of Paederia scandens(Lour.) Merrill(P.scandens) in rat plasma.The bioactive constituents in plasma samples from rats administrated orally with P.scandens extract were analyzed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS).Four prototype compounds were identified in rat serum as potential bioactive components of P.scandens by comparing their retention times and mass spectrometry data or by mass spectrometry analysis and retrieving the reference literatures.Glucuronidation after deglycosylation was the major metabolic pathway for the iridoid glycosides in P.scandens.These results showed that the methods had high sensitivity and resolution and were suitable for identifying the bioactive constituents in plasma after oral administration of P.scandens.providing helpful chemical information for further pharmacological and mechanistic researched on the P.scandens.
Optimization of the processing technology of Fructus Arctii by response surface methodology
LIU Qi-Di, QIN Kun-Ming, SHEN Bao-Jia, CAI Hao, CAI Bao-Chang
2015, 13(3): 222-231.
The present study was designed to optimize the processing of Fructus Arctii by response surface methodology(RSM).Based on single factor studies,a three-variable,three-level Box-Behnken design(BBD) was used to monitor the effects of independent variables,including processing temperature and time,on the dependent variables.Response surfaces and contour plots of the contents of total lignans,chlorogenic acid,arctiin,and arctigenin were obtained through ultraviolet and visible(UV-Vis) monitoring and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).Fructus Arctii should be processed under heating in a pot at 311℃,medicine at 119℃ for 123 s with flipping frequently.The experimental values under the optimized processing technology were consistent with the predicted values.In conclusion,RSM is an effective method to optimize the processing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM).
Simultaneous determination and assignment of 13 major flavonoids and glycyrrhizic acid in licorices by HPLC-DAD and Orbirap mass spectrometry analyses
WEI Shan-Shan, YANG Min, CHEN Xin, WANG Qiu-Rong, CUI Ya-Jun
2015, 13(3): 232-240.
To determine 13 flavonoids and glycyrrhizic acid in licorice (P.scandens), several samples from different areas were examined by HPLC-DAD analysisThe analysis was performed on a Zorbax ExtendC18 (250 mm4.6 mm, 5 m) column connected with a Zorbax Extend guard column (20 mm4.6 mm, 5 m). The mobile phase consisted of (A) acetonitrile and (B) 0.026% aqueous H3PO4 (V/V) using a gradient elution of 20%-25% A at 0-20 min, 25%-33% A at 20-30 min, 33%-50% A at 30-55 min, 50%-60% A at 55-65 min, and 60% A between 65 min and 80 min, and peaks were detected at 280 nm. The fourteen compounds were assigned by HPLC-Orbitrap MS methods. The regression coefficient for the linear equations for the 14 compounds ranged between 0.9998 and 1. The limits of detection and quantification lay in the range of 0.032-2.461 and 0.154-8.202 gmL-1, respectively. The relative recovery rates for the 14 compounds were in the range of 93.90%-106.73% with RSDs being less than 5%. Coefficient variations for intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the range of 0.27%-2.38% and 0.31%-3.51%, respectively. In summary, the validated method was applied to the simultaneous determination of the 14 components in 29 different licorice samples and was proven to be suitable for quality evaluation of licorices and their active fractions.